Composite week sampling designs have already been found in past content analysis studies to have representative examples of tv development (Kunkel et al., 1999, 2001, 2003; Madden & Grube, 1994; Wallack, Grube, Madden, & Breed, 1990; Wilson et al., 1997). This sampling strategy involves arbitrarily picking times of the week or certain time slots for recording over many weeks to lessen prospective bias that would be introduced if all taping had been done within a calendar week that is single. Recording for the test took place mainly over a period that is 7-week the autumn every year. Because season premiere episodes are staggered through the thirty days of September, we started taping as soon as all nonsyndicated show had been showing episodes from the season that is current. Each week, three different times of the week had been arbitrarily chosen for taping from all 11 channels, along with 7 days regarding the week represented 3 times within the test. The 8-hour time block for taping extended from 3:00 p.m. (of which time many youth are away from college) to 11:00 p.m. (through prime- time). The entire process of recapturing missed episodes (like those which is why the satellite sign ended up being lost or even the show was pre-empted by displaying or any other events that are special proceeded through the entire winter time.
Not totally all product that was taped had been coded.
As our focus had been on scripted development, we excluded day-to-day news broadcasts, game shows, sports programs and activities, and paid development, also all types of commercials as well as other promotions ( ag e.g., teasers for community programs). Although music videos were taped, these were coded and analyzed individually for their unique faculties and are maybe perhaps maybe not reported right right here. The analyses introduced in this paper, but, do are the nonmusic video clip programming from cable music activity channels including talk programs, variety/comedy shows, and truth programs. In addition, demonstrates that were incomplete simply because they started before 3:00 p.m. or ended after 11:00 p.m. are not coded. Finally, episode repeats were eradicated through the test.
The last sample for the 2001-2002 period contains 1,276 unique system episodes, whereas the last test for the 2002-2003 period included 1,439 unique system episodes. The test when it comes to 2nd content analysis had been notably bigger than the very first 12 months’s test once we produced concerted work in 12 months 2 to make sure that we had three episodes of every nonsyndicated show. Despite strict adherence to your sampling plan, extra taping had been needed whenever, for instance, brand brand brand new programs joined the autumn lineup following the start of year to replace for cancelled programs or as soon as the time and time slot for a set had been changed.
The codebook for the bigger research had been based significantly regarding the factors produced by Kunkel and peers (1999, 2001, 2003) inside their content analyses conducted when it comes to Kaiser Family Foundation. We created extra products, including those on same-sex behavior that is intimate sexual talk pertaining to nonheterosexuals. Contrary to Kunkel and peers, whom utilized the scene whilst the primary product of analysis, our content analyses involved coding for intimate content in 2-minute periods of system time. Because scenes differ quite a bit in total and, hence, never offer a continuing device of measure to make evaluations across programs, we utilized a coding that is standard according to time. Coding news development in designated time intervals has been utilized usually by other scientists conducting content analyses across different system genres including films, detergent operas, and music videos (Hazan, Lipton, & Glantz, 1994; Lowery, 1980; Roberts, Christenson, Henriksen, & Bandy, 2002; Roberts, Henriksen, & Christenson, 1999; Sommers-Flanagan, Sommers-Flanagan, & Davis, 1993; Stockwell & Glantz, 1997; Terre, Drabman, & Speer, 1991).
For purposes of the content analysis, intercourse ended up being understood to be any xxxstreams depiction of sexual intercourse, intimately suggestive behavior, or any speak about sex or activity that is sexual. To be conservative and prevent overcoding content that is sexual communications about intercourse were differentiated from nonsexual communications linked to love and relationships, that have been perhaps perhaps perhaps not coded. For instance, a declaration such as вЂњI favor my boyfriendвЂќ wouldn’t be coded whereas a declaration such as вЂњI made want to my boyfriendвЂќ could be coded.